WattCarbon Energy Attribute Tracking System (WEATS)

The WattCarbon Energy Attribute Tracking System (WEATS) is the only registry designed specifically for distributed energy resources, enabling transactions of Energy Attribute Certificates (EACs) for any hour, from any clean energy resource.

WEATS is designed to support the transition from annual clean energy matching to full decarbonization of our energy system.

The next generation of Energy Decarbonization Management


WEATS is the first registry specifically designed for all types of distributed energy resources (DERs), enabling the entire ecosystem of clean energy technologies to participate in clean energy markets. Any entity that owns the rights to decarbonization savings may register their DER assets, and monetize the energy attributes on the WattCarbon Marketplace.


WEATS is the only registry that provides visibility into all attributes of clean energy, including carbon reductions, thus enabling procurement based on specific decarbonization impacts. Minted Energy Attribute Certificates (EACs) contain specific attributes for every watt-hour of energy, including grid emissions intensity, carbon impact, location, generation time and more. Organizations can buy and sell with confidence based on their unique needs.

For example, an EAC sourced from solar energy produced from a rooftop in West Virginia will contain a wholly different set of attributes than an EAC of battery energy dispatched into the Texas energy market during a peak evening demand hour. An organization trying to maximize its carbon impacts might choose to procure the EAC from West Virginia, while the company trying to achieve a 24/7 CFE goal in Texas might opt for the battery EAC.


WEATS enables hourly clean energy matching by generating unique EACs for every watt-hour of energy. Organizations may buy & retire EACs for any time of day needed to meet 24/7 goals or opt for an emissionality strategy by prioritizing carbon intensity.

EAC Registration & Certification

WEATS adheres to the open standards developed by EnergyTag, a non-profit that is creating standards for hourly clean energy tracking. To create EACs, each distributed energy asset is registered by its owners (or a representative) and connected to a verifiable data source, so that environmental benefits can be precisely measured and properly attributed.

WEATS prevents double counting by assigning a unique ID for every watt-hour for each EAC and providing a publicly available interface for cross-checking sites and assets against other registries. The unique identifier enables WEATS to identify the specific source and timing of the underlying energy resources and allows for complete auditability for all transactions. Any audits or other reporting will be able to trace the claim to clean energy back to the source, including a complete history of all transactions subsequent to initial creation of the EAC.

EAC Exchange & Retirement

WEATS allows any participant to create and retire EACs in their own accounts, transfer EACs to a third party account, or list them for sale on the WattCarbon Marketplace. Once an EAC is retired against a net zero claim, it must not ever be able to be claimed by another entity. Each watt-hour EAC is assigned a unique serial number in WEATS so that watt-hours can be exchanged or retired on an individual basis.

Principles of Measurement and Verification

EACs provide important context that allows for transparent, impactful procurement of clean energy resources. Every watt-hour of electricity tells a different story. Some are produced by solar panels, others are the product of energy efficiency and demand response, while others are the heat-equivalent generation from heat pumps. In each case, there are measurement and verification standards that support claims for energy and environmental impacts.

To ensure data integrity in measurement & verification, WEATS verifies that an energy asset or system is registered with a third party, such as a manufacturer or energy market aggregator. WEATS verifies the location and ownership of the asset and uses settlement quality data to create EACs for each watt-hour of electricity associated with the asset.

WattCarbon supports direct metering as well as the use of models that estimate energy and environmental impacts. Every recorded EAC references a “measurement body” that is responsible for reporting energy data to WEATS. The measurement body is a third party, independent entity that is responsible for supplying energy data, such as a utility meter or market operator.

Some assets can be directly metered, such as renewable energy generators, batteries, and EV chargers. Others require the use of a model in order to calculate energy and environmental impacts. Demand response, for example, typically establishes a baseline counterfactual of energy consumption in the preceding days before an event that is used to calculate energy savings from an event. Electrification projects require an estimation of both a reduction in fossil fuel consumption as well as an increase in electricity consumption. Some limitations in energy data may require an estimation of hourly impacts based on aggregated load profiles calibrated to actual values.

Where possible, WattCarbon uses directly metered data to create watt-hour EACs. Where an energy model is required, WattCarbon uses data validated by market operators (such as utilities or Independent System Operators). For example, demand response is bid into an energy market, which certifies a kWh value for each participant. The kWh value recognized by the market operator is the basis for the creation of the EAC for each watt-hour of energy saved during the demand response event. In cases such as electrification where there is neither a direct metering option nor a market operator, WattCarbon follows existing protocols from state energy offices that define methodologies for calculating savings. Finally, there are some instances in which custom measurement and verification is required. WattCarbon reviews the methodology being used, confirms that it has been agreed to in advance by all counterparties, and publicly identifies the measurement body responsible for providing savings calculations.